Coenzyme Q10, also called coenzyme Q or ubiquinone, is a member of the quinone chemical group. The “10” refers to the number of isoprenyl chemical subunits present at the end of the substance’s chain. The substance is a lipid-soluble substance, much like certain vitamins, that is present in pretty much all cellular mitochondria. It is a primary component of the electron transport chain and is thus instrumental in aerobic respiration at a cellular level. This creates adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which provides almost all of the energy in the human body. The other type of energy produced anaerobically is ADP, and you have probably consciously experienced this before because this process creates lactic acid. This results in burning lungs, burning muscles, and a general decrease in tissue effectiveness.
So, since coenzyme Q is responsible for producing most of the efficient energy sources produced in the body, the organs that have the highest energy needs also have the most of this enzyme. These are organs such as the kidneys, liver, and heart. This enzyme comes in three states: oxidised, semi-oxidised, and fully reduced. Since it can be oxidised and reduced, it can provide energy as well as being an antioxidant.
CoQ10 has many health benefits that many people find to be very useful. The enzyme has been shown to have some effectiveness when treating heart disease. Some evidence exists that it aids in the prevention of heart disease in those who are otherwise healthy. Also related to the heart, some research has shown that it could have an effect on lowering blood pressure. Many have also sworn to the efficacy of the enzyme in treating male infertility. Coenzyme Q has many benefits related to improving the quality of sperm, which should decrease infertility rates as the quality of sperm increases.
Some migraine sufferers have found the enzyme to have incredible benefits for the conditions of their migraines. This could be evidence for the theory that migraines actually result from a disorder of the mitochondria. Since mitochondrial dysfunction can be improved with a supplement, it stands to reason the enzyme would reduce the agony of migraines.
Statin medications have been shown to break down muscles, and coenzyme Q has been found to reduce the breakdown of muscles. However, one of the most exciting studies comes from a study about the effectiveness in treating Parkinson’s disease. A recent study found that coenzyme Q supplements could have some beneficial effects on the treatment of Parkinson’s. The study has since been withdrawn after an independent review; however, the results still seem very promising.
The bioavailability of substances is crucial to their success. So many different enzymes break down in the stomach or they don’t actually get metabolised, so they pass right through the body. Increasing the bioavailability of a substance means increasing how well you can utilise that supplement. Decreasing the particle size helps it pass into the bloodstream. Also, if the enzyme can be rendered water-soluble or lipid-soluble that helps immensely. Water solubility is probably the best property for a substance to have if it is to be absorbed as so much of the body is water.